TOC Earth Science last update 1/28/2015


Earth Science is listed here because science has noticed an anomaly with human DNA being affected by ice ages.  Ice ages certainly do affect survival probability, if for instance an Ice Age started today our crops would fail, animals would die off and there would be mass human starvation on the scale of 5-6 billion people.  There will probably be a few preserved pockets that flourish as there was the last time.  But an Ice age last ten of thousands of years with a few years of warning between.

Earth's weather is dictated by the earth orbit around the sun, which is confounded by earth's tilt and rotation and that the earth does not orbit at an equal distance -- refer to this link:

Every 100,000 years the earth reaches its farthest distance from the sun and every 41,000 years it reaches its nearest distance from the sun.  Within that 100ky the earth is not only farthest from the sun but the northern hemisphere is tilted even farther from the sun.   I have yet to find a correlation of this positioning to our current celestial date.   Therefore, I can't tell you how much longer before the next ice age begins or the next pronounced warming period begins.   At some point the monsoon rains will shift back north from today and the Sahara will once again become a green savanna.   When that happens I presume the northward shift will also change the amounts of rain delivered to the current monsoon regions, when that happens will it leave the southern regions dry and desert like, and will it return prosperity to what was before.   Will we continue to learn of the great civilizations of the past or will we continue to believe we are the ultimate creation.

There will be another ice age, hopefully giving our species a chance to survive.  After the ice crushes and scrapes the sky scrapers clean will the remaining humans ever wonder if they are the ultimate creation?


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-- Assyrian clay tablet points to 'Sodom and Gomorrah' asteroid - 3/31/08
-- Ice Ages Blamed on Tilted Earth - 3/30/05
-- Proof on Ice: Southern Greenland Was Once Green; Earth Warmer - 7/05/07
-- Arctic Ice Caps May Be More Prone to Melt - 06/22/12
-- Siberia was a wildlife refuge in the last ice age - 1/10/12 (20)
-- Russians revive Ice Age flower from frozen burrow - 2/21/12 (16)
-- Record-Breaking Ice Core May Hold Key to Climate Variation - 04/10/04
-- Vikings May Have Grown Their Own Grapes -
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Little Ice Age: Was It Big Enough to be Global?   Describes the period between 1550-1700 when the global average temperature dropped between 1 and 2 degrees Celsius.
For all who believe in the literal reading of the Christian Bible, the passage "one day is with the Lord as a thousand years, and a thousand years as one day" 2 Peter 3:8), is my basis to believe that (even though) God made all living things on earth (In 7 days per the text) there is no fixed human time for 7 of God's days,
since the God Creator is the equivalent of unfathomable wisdom and power throughout eternity, the passage might just as well have read "a million years or even a billion".  A million and numbers greater were not a fathomable concept by our farming and trading ancestors at the time of these teachings, therefore the passage was intended to explain the concept of eternity to the listeners.

Therefore, there is reason why both the Bible and the archeologist are correct.   Yet, even now I am troubled by some Bible passages, for instance "let us make man in our image".   Who was "us"?    Then, according to some concepts, the waters of the red sea parted as long as Moses held up his arms and staff - so how did Moses get across.

As an example, for 400 years beginning about (1604-1611) we were taught; in the truest sincerity, the story of Moses parting the "RED SEA" - it turns out that this was translated from the Greek which was translated from Hebrew, but a re-translation of the original Hebrew gives a corrected translation of "REED SEA". The Reed Sea is/was a tidal marsh near the Mouth of the Nile, and when the tide is out it can be walked across.  Pharaoh's forces were probably crossing when the tide came in and Moses no doubt knew this all along, setting a trap for Pharaoh's troops. There is no description of Moses - no one knows his actual likeness.

On the other hand, there is much controversy concerning the translation of Yum Suph (even the word Yum is also spelled Yam). In any case there is no consensus on the translation and there is also much controversy on the location of the nearby cities, so that tracing the exodus route has been and will probably remain an unknown.  It is possible that in the final translation it will be Red Sea. It is the curse of science to render the physical understandable to our inadequate human minds.  Even scientist tend to render themselves inadequate when pride and ego is involved.

Glossary of Epochs

The Lower Paleolithic lasted between 2.5 million-200,000 years ago (or at least according to one permutation), and it was when the Hominid ancestors of human beings, including Australopithecus, Homo habilis, Homo erectus and Homo ergaster, roamed most of the earth and began making the first stone tools.

The Middle Paleolithic (ca 200,000 to 45,000 years ago) witnessed the evolution of Neanderthals and the first anatomically modern Homo sapiens sapiens, and some of the first glimmers of modern behaviors: sophisticated stone tools, caring for the elderly, hunting and gathering and some amount of symbolic or ritual behavior. 
Projectile points (used on spears or atlatl darts) are known from earlier prehistory, dating to the Middle Paleolithic.

By the Upper Paleolithic (45,000-10,000 years ago), the Neanderthals were in decline, and by 30,000 BC, they were gone. Modern humans spread all over the planet. The LSA is characterized by fully modern behaviors such as cave art, hunting, and making a wide range of tools in stone, bone, ivory and antler. 
The bow and arrow are known to have been invented by the end of the Upper Paleolithic.

The Mesolithic (or "middle stone") period (12,000-7000 years ago) is traditionally that time period in the Old World between the last glaciation at the end of the Paleolithic and the beginning of the Neolithic, when farming communities began to be established.   During the first three thousand years of what scholars recognize as the Mesolithic, a period of climatic instability made life very interesting in Europe, with gradual warming abruptly switching to 1200 years of very cold dry weather called the Younger Dryas.   By 9000 BC, the climate had stabilized to close to what it is today.

The Neolithic period as a notion is based on an idea of an Old Stone Age (Paleolithic) and New Stone Age (Neolithic).   The definition of Neolithic is now seen as a "package" of characteristics: groundstone tools, rectangular buildings, pottery, people living in settled villages and, most importantly, the production of food by developing a working relationship with animals and plants called domestication.

Quaternary Period, The
Covers the span of time from over one and a half million years ago to the present day.

The Pleistocene: 1.8 Million to 11,000 Years Ago

But, we still need a way to discuss humans and their ancestors as a separate group, so researchers have proposed a further breakdown of the Homininae subfamily, to include Hominini (humans and their ancestors), Panini (chimps), and Gorillini (gorillas).

So, roughly speaking, a Hominin is what we used to call a Hominid; a creature that paleoanthropologists have agreed is human or a human ancestor. These include all of the Homo species (Homo sapiens, H. ergaster, H. rudolfensis), all of the Australopithecines (Australopithecus africanus, A. boisei, etc.) and other ancient forms like Paranthropus and Ardipithecus.

kiloannum:  A word being used in a few scientific papers these days "kiloannum abbreviated (ka)" means 1000 years and is written as c. 55 Ka BP and you know that BP is before present used by people that do not recognize the Christian calendar. 

I seriously dislike this measure because I have read that 1950 is the base date for BP yet it is not significant in either geology or anthropology, it is no more than a date some politically correct bureaucrat devised.   That means to compare a BP date to a BC date one must subtract 1950 years from the BP date to arrive at the BC compare point.   I've tried that, results can be contradictory.  Then we run across the contridiction that some papers use BP as a replacement for BC - So unless the papers specify BC/AD one can't be sure of a valid date.

For ordinary purposes, the dates of events occurring prior to 15 October 1582 are generally shown as they appeared in the Julian calendar, with the year starting on 1 January, and no conversion to their Gregorian equivalents. The Battle of Agincourt is universally known to have been fought on 25 October 1415 which is Saint Crispin's Day.

As I understand, the Sumerians used the first writing called cuneiform.   Prior to that merchants had devised a pantheon of symbols to represent items of trade.

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