Neolithic History
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-- Genetic Study Added to Debate on India’s Bronze Age Languages
-- Sodom and Gomorrah - Posted June 11, 15
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12,000-Year-Old Village Unearthed in Israel
-- Ancient British DNA Analyzed
-- Back-to-Africa Gene Flow Was Limited to Eastern Africa
-- New Evidence Suggests People Lived in the Arctic 45,000 Years Ago
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Tree-Ring Data Reveals Little Ice Age 1,500 Years Ago
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 Genetic Study Added to Debate on India’s Bronze Age Languages

YORKSHIRE, ENGLAND—Could men from Central Asia have brought Indo-European languages to India thousands of years ago? Live Science reports that archaeogeneticist Martin Richards of the University of Huddersfield and his colleagues conducted an analysis of genetic material collected from modern populations living in India, where ancient DNA rarely survives in the hot climate.

The data from the study suggest that multiple waves of people migrated into the subcontinent from Anatolia, the Caucasus, and Iran over the past 20,000 years. In particular, Richards and his colleagues say between 4,000 and 3,800 years ago, the Y-chromosome subtype associated with men of the Yamnaya culture appeared in Indian populations. The Yamnaya lived between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea, are known for their pit graves and wheeled horse chariots, and spoke a precursor of Indo-European languages. The Yamnaya subgroup is now carried by about 17.5 percent of Indian men—more often in the north than in the south. So, did Yamnaya warriors conquer northern India, or perhaps migrate there and have large families? “It’s very easy for Y-chromosome composition to change very quickly,” Richards said. “Just because individual men can have a lot more children than women can.” To read more about Bronze Age Indo-European cultures, go to "The Wolf Rites of Winter."

https://www.archaeology.org/news/5715-170706-india-genetic-study
 

 Preamble:  I don't see a conflict between this and the biblical text of the destruction.  As is so often said, God works in mysterious ways and if He wants to use a meteor to do His work who are we to argue with Him.

The Documentary

Tonight I watched a documentary about the destruction of the cities of the planes by the dead sea, i.e. Sodom and Gomorrah, turns out there were other
villages unknown until recently when a map of the entire region was discovered as a mosaic on excavated flooring.  This documentary speculated that the destruction of the cities was by “fire and brimstone from the heavens” and it certainly did occur but was caused by a meteor that struck in the alps near Köfels Austria, throwing debris miles into the atmosphere, the return of this debris was the fire and brimstone from the sky mentioned by the bible.

From one excavation archeologist have found a floor mosaic that was a map that more or less pinpoints the location of the destroyed cities, there were four or five.

Also found by archeologist is an Assyrian planisphere which is a type of star map, and that was interpreted as giving the path of a meteor that struck in the Alps spraying destruction before it, that it was a meteor is disputed because the is no clearly defined strike field such as the one in Arizona. Yet, there might be a good explanation in that the meteor may have exploded after shearing a mountain peak.

The researchers produced a computer program that traced the strike back in time based on the location of the star alignment of the planisphere. The date comes within 3123 BC, this date is important because it is mentioned in other text not part of this documentary.

In any case, after the destruction of the cities, there was a worldwide climate freeze which in changing the rain patterns produced desertification and wide scale famine, many cities around the globe were deserted, that supported by deciphered records in China and Japan. There seems to be no western recordings of it, maybe because western civilization was more devastated than those in the East were.

Break for the Maya calendar –

The “creation date” for the last Maya cycle is 4 Ahaw, 8 Kumku. According to the most common conversion, this date is equivalent to August 11, 3114 BC.  Presuming the end of the cycle was indeed December, 2012 as we have been told then we are now in a new Maya cycle, that is because some Maya still live in Central and South America and they still use the same calendar, so I’m told.

The Long Count has a cycle of 13 baktuns, which will be completed 1.872.000 days (13 baktuns) after 0.0.0.0.0. This period equals 5125.36 years and is referred to as the “Great Cycle” of the Long Count.

What if:

Presume the last Maya calendar start date calculated for Aug 11, 3114 BC. Now presume the meteor strike was 3123 BC.

These dates are only 9 years apart: I am going to presume the Maya calendar is accurate simply because there is much evidence of celestial accuracy from the Maya, then the slightest error in the calculation of the lone small Assyrian planisphere could easily serve to merge recording the meteor strike on the date of 3114 BC

This would also serve as the catastrophic/change some speculate is the sign of a new Maya cycle. 

To date there have been the normal earthquakes and volcano blowouts but nothing yet that we can say is a civilization ending catastrophe during this new Maya calendar turn over (knock on wood).
 

 12,000-Year-Old Village Unearthed in Israel

February 18, 2016

JERUSALEM, ISRAEL—Archaeologists have discovered a prehistoric village in the Jordan Valley that appears to have been occupied by both Paleolithic foraging peoples and early Neolithic farmers. Stone tools at the site strongly resemble those made by the Late Paleolithic Natufian culture, which lasted from about 15,000 to 11,500 years ago. Buildings and many artifacts found at the site, such as shell beads and other examples of jewelry, more closely resemble those found in early agricultural communities. The discovery suggests that people living at the site continued to use Paleolithic-style tools even as they began to adopt agriculture. “Characterizing this important period of potential overlap in the Jordan Valley is crucial for the understanding of the socioeconomic processes that marked the shift from Paleolithic mobile societies of hunter-gatherers to Neolithic agricultural communities,” said Hebrew University archaeologist Leore Grosman.

http://www.archaeology.org/news/4191-160218-israel-paleolithic-neolithic-village
 

 Ancient British DNA Analyzed

January 20, 2016

Anglo Saxon DNA
(Duncan Sayer, University of Central Lancashire)

CAMBRIDGESHIRE, ENGLAND—An international team of scientists obtained whole genome sequences from ten skeletons unearthed near Cambridge. The skeletons ranged from the Iron Age, early Anglo-Saxon, and Middle Anglo-Saxon periods. The scientists then compared the ancient genomes with those from modern Europeans by looking at rare mutations. “We estimate that 38 percent of the ancestors of the English were Anglo-Saxons. This is the first direct estimate of the impact of immigration into Britain from the fifth to seventh centuries A.D. and the traces left in modern England,” Stephan Schiffels of the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute and the Max Plank Institute said in a press release. The genetic evidence, when combined with archaeological evidence, offers more information on how Anglo-Saxon immigrants adapted to life in Britain. “Genome sequences from four individuals from a cemetery in Oakington indicated that, genetically, two were migrant Anglo-Saxons, one was a native, and one was a mixture of both. The archaeological evidence shows that these individuals were treated the same way in death, and proves they were all well integrated into the Oakington Anglo-Saxon community despite their different biological heritage,” added Duncan Sayer of the University of Central Lancashire.

http://www.archaeology.org/news/4085-160120-anglo-saxon-dna
 

 Back-to-Africa Gene Flow Was Limited to Eastern Africa

January 29, 2016

CAMBRIDGE, ENGLAND—Population geneticist Andrea Manica of the University of Cambridge announced that he and his team made a mistake in the conclusions drawn from the comparison of the genome they obtained from the 4,500-year-old human remains found in Ethiopia’s Mota Cave, and the reference human genome. The paper claimed that traces of Eurasian ancestry, brought to Africa by farmers from the Middle East some 3,000 years ago, can be found in Ethiopian highlanders, West Africans, and the Mbuti of Central Africa. “The movement 3,000 years ago, or thereabouts, was limited to eastern Africa,” Manica told Nature News. Incompatibility between two software packages caused the error, first detected by Pontus Skoglund and David Reich of Harvard Medical School, who tried to duplicate the results. “Almost all of us agree there was some back-to-Africa gene flow, and it was a pretty big migration into East Africa. But it did not reach West and Central Africa, at least not in a detectable way,” Skoglund said.

http://www.archaeology.org/news/4111-160129-africa-eurasian-ancestry
 

 New Evidence Suggests People Lived in the Arctic 45,000 Years Ago

Friday, January 15, 2016

Arctic hunted mammoth
(Pitulko et al., Science 2016)

ST. PETERSBURG, RUSSIA—The partial frozen carcass of a mammoth was discovered near the eastern shore of Yenisei Bay in the central Siberian Arctic in 2012 by an 11-year-old boy. Scientists, led by Alexei Tikhonov of the Russian Academy of Sciences, excavated the mammoth remains, and found injuries made by sharp weapon tips to the ribs and right mandible, and signs of chopping to the outside of the right tusk. “This is a rare case for unequivocal evidence for clear human involvement,” Vladimir Pitulko of the Russian Academy of Science told Science. Radiocarbon dating of collagen from the tibia, bone, hair, and muscle tissue indicate that the animal died some 45,000 years ago, or 10,000 years earlier than it had been thought modern humans lived in the Eurasian Arctic. The find also indicates that people had made the necessary adaptations in cooperation, hunting, tool making, shelter building, and clothing production in order to live in such a harsh environment.

http://www.archaeology.org/news/4075-160115-arctic-hunted-mammoth
 

 Tree-Ring Data Reveals Little Ice Age 1,500 Years Ago

February 09, 2016    (Vladimir S. Myglan)

Eurasia summer temperatures

BIRMENSDORF, SWITZERLAND—Tree-ring data collected in the Altai Mountains of Russia have helped scientists reconstruct summer temperatures in central Asia for the past 2,000 years. “The course temperatures we took in the Altai Mountains correspond remarkably well to what we found in the Alps,” Ulf Büntgen of the Swiss Federal Research Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape WSL said in a press release. His multidisciplinary research team detected a period of low temperatures in the sixth century A.D. that they call the “Late Antique Little Ice Age,” or LALIA. The low temperatures were likely the result of three volcanic eruptions in the mid-sixth century that ejected particles into the atmosphere and blocked sunlight. The resulting famine was followed by the pandemic of the Justinian plague and political turmoil that may have led to the decline of the Eastern Roman Empire. To the south, the Arabian Peninsula received more rain than usual and grew more vegetation that may have sustained larger herds of camels used by Arab armies. “The LALIA fits in well with the main transformative events that occurred in Eurasia during that time,” Büntgen explained.

[This occured roughly 516 AD in ]

Extinct giant cave bears live on - in the DNA of today's brown bears

A new German study confirms that about 0.9 to 2.4 percent of living brown bears' DNA traces back to the extinct species.

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What would have changed if humans had firearms during the iceage warming period.  They could have killed only as many buffalo as they needed rather than running complete herds over a cliff.

 

 

 

 

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