INTRODUCTION TO DNA
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FTDNA: The links at right take you to the Family Tree DNA home page.   This is an internationally known organization supporting DNA research.   The university of Arizona does the physical testing of the customers samples submitted to FTDNA.   They have a tremendous team and do excellent work.  FTDNA is relied on by the Ogle/Ogles Family Association for all their DNA testing, as do many others.
 
-- FTDNA Home Page

-- FTDNA answers to most all questions about testing

-- FTDNA Individual Current Pricing

 Basic:

There are four basic groups that can be identified by DNA.

Native American: Populations that migrated from Asia to inhabit North, South and Central America.
 
European: European, Middle Eastern and South Asian populations from the Indian subcontinent, including India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka.
 
East Asian: Japanese, Chinese, Mongolian, Koreans, Southeast Asians and Pacific Islanders, including populations native to the Philippines.
 
African: Populations from Sub-Saharan Africa such as Nigeria and Congo region.

To find a lot about DNA and how it works to ID us go to https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/    Be patient the web site is not as organized as it once was.

Ancestry By DNA (see genetree.com) can be used to determine the percentage of DNA a person has from each four groups, the test examines 175 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). These 175 SNPs have been selected based on their bio-geographic polymorphism patterns, and are referred to as Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs). The alleles found at these marker locations show very high specificity for people from particular populations, ethnicity and/or geographical regions.

The mtDNA Haplogroups:

a) mtDNA macro-lineage L is predominant in Africa, L1, L2, and L3 - Found in Sub-Saharan African lineages.

b) mt-DNA macro-lineages M and N are found throughout Eurasia and Australia.

c) mtDNA lineages H, I , J, K, T, N, U, V, W and X are predominant in West Eurasia.  mtDNA lineages H, I, J, K, T, U, V, W and X - Found in nearly all lineages from Europe, North African and Western Asian Caucasians.

d) mtDNA lineages A, B, C, D, E, F, G, M, P, Q and Z are predominant in Asia and Oceania, and

e) mtDNA lineages A, B, C, D, and X are found in the Americas.

Y-chromosome Haplogroups:

An individual that has a very old DNA lineage can usually be identified to a continental region such as Western Europe. Younger lineages can be identified to more specific regions, such as Southwest North America. Very young Y-chromosome lineages could provide even more detailed, population specific information.

B, E: are found in Sub-Saharan African lineages.
E, G, H, I, J, and R are found in lineages from Europe, Middle East, and Western Asia.
C, D, N, O, Q, and R are found in the Asian populations.
P, Q, and F are found in Native American lineages.

NOTE: Some Haplogroups are present in both Europe and Asia, but can often be sub-divided into European or Asian specific lineages.
 


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